A composition made from blood, mixed with mineral or vegetable substances, used for making buttons, door knobs, jewelry etc.
With the growth of slaughtering and butchering trades in the 19th century, disposing of large quantities of blood became an issue. You literally couldn't give the stuff away! London butchers in Newport Market were banned from tipping blood into the sewers as it would attract rats. Luckily recycling was already a common practice: phosphorous matches were made from ground bones, tobacco ash was re-purposed into tooth-cleaner, and desiccated fish eyes were used for the buds on fake flowers- delightful!
These innovations were a catalyst for creative approaches to blood disposal, as a headline from the January 1892 issue of Manufacturer and Builder magazine suggests:
Door Knobs, etc., from Blood and Sawdust.
Invented by Dr W H Dibble of New Jersey, Hemacite is a material made from sawdust and the blood of slaughtered animals. Primarily from cattle and pig, the blood and sawdust, combined with 40 thousand pounds per square inch of hydraulic pressure and chemical compounds, transformed into surprisingly durable and beautiful everyday items.
This composition was pre-plastic, and ideal for everything from doorknobs to roller skate wheels to products such as buttons, cash register keys and even jewelry. The composition of Hemacite was touted as susceptible to a high polish, impervious to heat, moisture, atmospheric changes, and practically indestructible.
An article “to skate manufacturers and dealers” in the New York Times, on 11 October 1885, stated that “the superiority of our Hemacite Roller over boxwood is now well known.” The success of the campaign spawned other articles like a 21 February 1903 Times ad by the Siegel Cooper department store, promoting 75-cent roller skates with Hemacite wheels, a more expensive option than skates with “plain black wheels.” Strangely enough, these adds were often juxtaposed with plugs for products like Plasmon Cocoa Mix- “A blood-invigorating and muscle-making beverage of the highest order.” Plasmon’s active ingredient was Albumen, the organic binding agent behind Hemacite roller skate wheels. Clever marketing or a dark sense of humor?!
At the time of the Manufacturer and Builder article, Dibble Manufacturing Company had been producing Hemacite architectural details and door knobs for quite some time. Rather than having a separate knob and shaft to wear out, Dibble’s knobs were molded as one unbreakable piece, and came with a guarantee for the lifetime of the door.
Due to its consistency, Hemacite is easy to confuse with Bakelite. Even cheaper to produce, the popularity of plastics like Bakelite almost entirely replaced the production of Hemacite by the early to mid-1900’s. Ever strong and durable, these house fixtures and doorknobs live on today- you can spot several in our nationally registered museum case at Hippo Hardware, and on occasion we will get a few in for sale. Talk about a real “conversation piece” to adorn your home!
A commonly asked question here in Hippo land is "How do I put beautiful antique hardware on my modern doors?" To support antique hardware lovers everywhere, we'd like to offer you a step by step guide to replacing your unwanted modern hardware with stunning antiques!
What you'll need:
2) Door plates (2)
3) Doorknobs (2)
Step 1: Take off all your existing hardware.
We're assuming at this stage that you have something that looks kinda like this:
How to disassemble is different for most manufacturers. Usually you need to look for some kind of 'pin' or set screw in the shaft of the doorknob to start. Some have an actual screw, some have a thin wire that needs to be pressed down, and some have a small hole that needs to be depressed with a screw driver. Some of them are really not very obvious and you might need to google search some instructions based on your knobs.
At the end, you should have a naked door that looks like this:
(Note - it's more likely the large center hole does not have divet in the back. This will be of no importance either way)
Step 2: Install a Tube Latch
First we start with a reproduction tube latch. A new tube latch will get you all these parts: A tube latch body, a face plate, a plastic spacer, and a strike plate. The pin won't be needed! Antique tube latches are also great and normally have a face plate already integrated.
The bonus of the separate face plate is the plunger can rotate to either side before securing the face plate, allowing the door to swing either way. Some antique tube latches can also rotate the plunger, but usually require opening them up. It's a great thing to explore if you're adventurous- but be careful to not lose parts and take a picture of the guts before you start pulling things out!
First, we take the black spacer and put it into the hole. This part will keep your tube latch aligned in the center of the hole:
Next, put the tube latch through the hole in the narrow edge of the door and through the space, like this:
Now you can rotate the plunger so the face of the plunger slopes towards the jamb of the door, or to where the strike will be. Think of it like if you threw the door closed behind you, you'd want the latch to hit the strike and slide up it until the door clicked closed. Once you have the plunger facing the correct direction, put the face plate over and screw it down:
Now is a great time to replace the strike if you need to. Make sure the latch lines up with the hole in the strike. You may already have a perfectly serviceable strike from your previous hardware.
Step 3: Install your plates
Next come the plates. Here is the biggest limitation when you have the large 2 1/8" hole - it's too wide for many antique plates to cover. It could be drastic like this guy:
Or less noticeable but still peaking out like this one:
Rosettes can be some of the trickiest because it looks like a perfect fit... until you realize that the screw holes are over the hole too and there's no easy way to attach it (we really don't recommend glue). There are tricky ways around this if you want to get long machine screws but it's a bit of work.
As long as the plate can attach to the door, the gap is aesthetic. If it doesn't bother you, there's nothing to stop you from using a plate that's too small to cover the hole. Most our customers don't like it and end up looking for a plate that is:
a) wide enough
b) has the screw holes over the wood to attach
A third option are reproduction rosettes that screw together. They're nice because you can get the antique rosette size without having to fill your door:
Yet another option are these reproduction rosettes that are an impressive 3" in diameter, leaving enough space to screw them directly into the wood:
For our example, we will use a lovely original 1915 craftsman door plate. The plate should be lined up with the hole in the plate for the doorknob over the hole in the latch:
and a detail of the alignment:
We normally wait to screw in the plate until the knobs have been installed. That way you can make sure the knobs are moving completely freely before screwing the plates down. The knobs are frequently snugly nested into the plate so even a slight lift or lower of the plate can cause the knobs to rub.
Step 4: Install Doorknobs
Next it's time for the knobs. Really, you can use any antique knobs with a spindle that you'd like. For this example, we're going to use a classic 1920's pair of octagonal glass knobs with a threaded spindle:
Take off one knob from the spindle which will involved loosening or removing the set screw in the collar and unscrewing it from the spindle. (Note - a straight shaft (non-threaded) knob set will also work but will come apart differently.)
Take the knob with the spindle attached and slide it through the door - both plates and the tube latch.
It's nice for alignment when the knobs nest into the plate bezel, like this:
It's not strictly necessary. Your knob can sit on top of the plate bezel but it's how the pieces were intended to function and it keeps the knobs from wobbling.
Once the first knob is through, re-attach the second knob so that it fits snugly but still moves freely. With threaded knobs, you'll have to experiment with the right placement although be sure to avoid putting the set screw down on the corner of the spindle. It will likely give way pretty quickly and your knob will start slipping. For straight shaft knobs, getting spacing right will usually involved getting actual spacers as the knobs are in fixed locations on the spindle.
Step 5: Screw Door Plates in Place
Once everything's in the right spot, make sure the knobs are sitting exactly perpendicular to the door and screw down the plates! All finished and looking good my friend!
But what about the innovation that wasn’t absorbed into the main stream manufacturing? Well, this brings us to the tale of the Niles Chicago hardware.
Milton Cleveland Niles, a farmer with some bright ideas, and his son Sidney, implemented a new lock and doorknob design in 1878. Niles and Son began producing the design in 1979 and became the Gray Iron Company in 1880. The Niles Chicago hardware differs from the more common threaded knob and spindle hardware in one major way; the spindle and knob are integrated.
Each knob is attached to an oversized "integrated" spindle. The spindle has a knuckle on it that, when fit into the mortise and turned, will open the latch. The Niles Chicago mortises themselves are unusual, featuring a larger hole and with a bar separating the two halves for each knob to snap into place.
The knobs move independently of one another, a slick departure from threaded spindle kits.
The major advantage of this design is the impeccable fit. There is no need for set screws or washers, no loose and rattling knobs, no stripped knobs from loose spindles, and perfect fits for the escutcheons. Also, the Niles Chicago knobs can be found in popular patterns, materials, and finishes of the time, such as the Le Grande and Corinthian patterns. Niles Chicago also made glass knobs, very cutting edge for the time!
I would LOVE to eliminate the rattling and twisting of the doorknobs and spindles in my house by using all Niles Chicago hardware, but it’s not quite that simple. Niles Chicago is hard to find because it was produced for only a short while.
The Chicago Hardware Manufacturing Company became the Gray Iron Company in 1882, and after 1888 the Niles Chicago design was seen less and less. The design, while superior in some ways, was also created in the middle of a design boom, and other more standard designs won out in popularity. Also, while there are less parts to replace and adjust on the Niles Chicago design, that also means that when a part fails, there is no easy fix. That aspect shortens the life of the hardware significantly.
It still leads us to wonder, what place would Niles Chicago have in antique hardware today if it was more wide spread? Would our door knobs jingle less? Would the design of more modern hardware have seen different and more advanced designs today? Would we just have 2 minutes more each day to snuggle our cats because we got to spend less time jiggling loose door knobs?
Hard to say. But Niles Chicago hardware, despite it's scarcity, is a great part of antique hardware history. And sometimes the good die young.
Additional Reading about Niles Chicago Hardware:
We'd like to take a minute here and highlight our amazing lighting shop. Our shop has daily adventures with all the wacky antique lighting we restore and rewire. It's not uncommon to head back there and hear the grinding wheel, drill press, and and polishing wheel all whirring away.
Not only do we wire our own fixtures, we take in repairs! That can mean everything from someone's favorite chandelier to some really wacky ideas- a blend? a mailslot? a ship's wheel? Sure thing!
Here are some chandeliers in the shop's ante-room. Sort of like a waiting area for light fixtures:
Here is an overview of the shop:
Here is a chandelier in progress (the shop gentlemen are tender sorts and did not volunteer to be photographed. I was, however, able to convince one to keep his hand in the picture):
And lastly our vice-on-a-post. It's really quite handy:
Need something rewired? Bring it in! Afraid of antique lighting because you want to make sure it's safe, rewired, and able to be hung by an electrician? We've got you covered!
Do you have any stories to share about adventures rewiring light fixtures? Share them in the comments!
Thorson, the 1895 wooden rimmed, skip tooth bicycle hangs over the Plumbing Department in Hippo Hardware, was the first thing I connected to here at Hippo. I have a deep interest in bicycles so this was the first antique that really caught my eye!
One of the ways that I have previously understood history is through the design and manufacturing of bicycles.
So, as I was admiring Thorson one day, I thought it would be interesting to trace the history of bicycles along side the production of hardware. Below I will trace the key historical developments of bicycles along side hardware to give a bigger picture of American industry.
Picture this: Chicago, 1895. The bicycle had been being produced in America since the 1870's. In 1895 there were over 75 manufactures of bicycles in Chicago's "Prairie District." Most of them closed within the year. A few remained open such as Western Wheel Works, and Arnold Schwinn's bicycle manufacturing, which made bicycles in the U.S. through the 70's.
Our friend from the ceiling's manufacturer, The Thorson Cycling Company, didn't make the cut. However, Thorson dons many of the contemporary trends of the time. Before the modern day bush-roller (roller) chain, was the "Humber" or block chain.
Instead of having a pin that goes through bushings, this chain uses a "block" of metal that rotates around the pin plate. Also the skip tooth 1/4" diameter chain ring was the major trend in chains and gears. Previous to chains, bicycles were driven by rods, belts, or direct drive front wheels.
Like hardware, the bicycle was created in Europe. Most developments were made in England, France, and Italy and eventually imported to the U.S.
1895 was the heart of the Victorian era, more specifically Period Revival and Queen Anne. Ornate stamped brass, bronze and cast iron in famous patterns such as the "Windsor", "Roanoke", and "Ceylon". And many countless other patterns which are lesser known. Pictured below are a set of stamped brass Roanoke Doorknobs.
As with bicycles, certain manufactures marked the ages and carried production well into the 20th century. Sargent, one of the biggest producers of Victorian hardware, made strong beautiful latches, pulls, door knobs and other items. Other companies gaining momentum at this time were Corbin, Yale, Chicago, and Standard Plumbing.
1930's (a bit of a fast forward)
Almost all bicycles sold in the U.S. in this era were made in the U.S. The Humber chain was still used, mostly by track racers, and the roller chain was now most common on bicycles produced for leisure riding. At this time in the U.S. cars outsold bicycles 10 to 1, so most bicycles were ridden by teenagers who could not yet drive. However, in Europe, bicycle manufacturing and component design was booming.
The Schwinn & Company, determined that the American public would go wild about bicycles with the right approach, created "light weight" models equipped with multiple gears! Predating the modern day derailleur was the internally geared hub. These hubs had 2 speeds and a coaster, or back pedal, brake. The New Departure was the the first widely sold multi-speed hub, and an important stepping stone to the modern day derailleur, which, today, goes up to 11 speeds on the rear wheel!
Still a skip tooth!
(Note: The first derailleurs were actually designed in France in the 1890's.)
This is the begin of the "Modern" era. Art Deco for everyone! Hardware began changing, mostly around door hardware and latch and spring designs. The old mortise style latch was overshadowed by the new "tube latch."
The depression had left it's mark. Mortise locks, with intricate internal springs and latches, and mostly brass plates, were left behind for cheaper plated steel tube latches that used a lot less materials to produce. The Schlage company revolutionized door hardware by drilling out doors to fit tube latches instead of mortises. Dexter, Skillman, and Norwalk were the companies whose names were sought after in the 30's and 40's.
While bicycle sales were dwindling, having ebbed by 1905, hardware was still needed, used, and aesthetically relevant. The ringed or circle patterns are a hallmark of the Deco era and seen on these Deco Doorknobs shown below are still considered classic celebrated today!
Bicycles were still slow selling in the U.S. market, there was a small increase in bicycle sales after soldiers returned from war, and imported some Raleighs, but mostly bicycles were still bought and ridden by teenagers. The Schwinn company would not give up so easily. In Europe, technological advancement in components was booming. Schwinn put out the World Traveller, a touring bike with a Sturmey-Archer (British) 3 speed hub, lights, rack, the works!
And, because racing was popular in Europe and Japan, the Paramount racing bicycle. This bicycle came as a single speed or a 3 speed internal hub, but derailleurs were about to make their mark from across both the Atlantic and the Pacific...
That's once good lookin' bike!
The automobile industry and rocket craze of the time influenced aesthetic of bicycles.
The Schwinn Panther melded the curves of the 1950's idyllic rocket and the contours of the Bel Air.
The influence of car and rocket design did not go unnoticed by the hardware designers of the time.
Known at the "Mid-Century Modern" ear, this was an era of satin bronze. An era where chrome left the bathroom and made it to the kitchen, and beyond! Some of the more established companies, such as Corbin and Sargent, were struggling with the changes of style of the time. Weiser invented Kwikset which quickly became the industry standard. Easy to key, easy to install, and cheap to produce, the other companies couldn't keep up. Other companies to dominate the 50's were Hollymade and National which still produce today.
The Deco Style of the 30's was present at the beginning of the decade, and progressed to a more chunky application of chrome, bronze, and the Deco lines. The example shown below highlights the straight lines and hard angles common in an Art Deco Kitchen Set while below we see a shift to the more rounded lines and mis-matches finishes more common in the late 1950's.
Times were a-changin'!
1960's and 1970's
The 1960's and 1970's were the greatest bicycle boom in America. Bicycle sales shot up as the 10 speed became all the rage. Our friend Thorton's skip tooth chain and single speed was a thing of the past. We now had 10 gears, modern derailleurs, and a 3/16" chain. Bicycling for recreation, family past times, and competitive racing finally caught up the trends in Europe, popularity of European frames and components.
Simplex was the leading producer of low end derailleurs, and Campagnolo the leader in high end parts, as they still are today. Shimano was producing quality parts as well, and grew to lead the industry in engineering and technology.
Schwinn was given a run for their money as bikes were shipped from Europe. Brands such as Bianchi, Puegot, Raleigh, and Motobecane became regular household names. The demand of the bicycle lead manufacturers to produce on a larger scale. Competition for top designs continued to push the industry to higher standards. The 1960's and 70's were the era of mass production.
Companies were growing, the economy was booming, factories were multiplying, and production was cheap. Weiser continued to be a top producer of hardware, and Westlock also came into popularity. Parts were smaller, and cheaper than ever before, so the cost of servicing parts quickly out weighed the cost. Disposable hardware became the norm and continued. The 1960's and 70's focused on engineering finishes, and continuing to come up with cheap parts for changing aesthetics.
I hope this was a fun and informative jaunt through early ages of hardware, bicycle and production. It was certainly educational for me! What do you think, dear readers? Would you rather have a bicycle of yesteryear or are you in love will all the new technology?